Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in the Balkans Peninsula in south-eastern Europe, bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast. The three major ethnic groups in the country are Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks. Its capital city is Sarajevo. "Bosnia" is the name of the northern and central part of the country. "Herzegovina" refers to the warmer southern tip of the country.
The history of Bosnia stretched back many millennia. During the Bronze Age, an Indo-European people called the Illyrians settled in the area, to be followed by the Celts. Bosnia was a part of the Roman Empire, and following its collapse the region passed under the control of Goths, Avars, Byzantines and Slavs. By the early 12th century, Bosnia has became an independent kingdom. The country fell under the rule of the Ottoman Empire in the later half of the 15th century, and would remain so until 1878, when the country became independent once again. Its freedom was short-lived, however, as Austria-Hungary soon moved in to occupy the country.
On June 28, 1914, a Serb nationalist named Gavrilo Princip assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo. The assassination by the so-called "Black Hand" group - was the spark which ultimately set off the First World War. After the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina found itself incorporated within the new South Slav kingdom of Yugoslavia. Like most other European countries, Yugoslavia was devastated by World War II. During the real World War II, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a part of the fascist-led Independent State of Croatia, and was later incorporated to the Second Yugoslavia in 1945. Yugoslavia dissolved in 1991, as the different ethnic groups in the country battled each other. The Yugoslav Wars saw widespread devastation and cruelty, especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The horrific war ended in 1995.
Bosnia became a major stronghold for the Brotherhood of Nod throughout the three Tiberium Wars. It was in Sarajevo that Kane built the first Temple of Nod, later known in the Third Tiberium War as "Temple Prime". Nod was expelled by GDI after their defeat in the First Tiberium War, but Nod forces under the command of Slavik later reclaimed the old Temple site after a battle with the local GDI garrison. Following the Second Tiberium War, Bosnia was a Nod-administered Yellow Zone. Nod rebuilt their Temple at Sarajevo, greatly expanding the compound.
The Nod assault on GDI Blue Zones in the Third Tiberium War provoked a GDI invasion of the Balkans. GDI forces approached from all sides and converged in Bosnia. The Siege of Temple Prime at Sarajevo was a crucial event in the War. GDI eliminated Nod's most important headquarter with an Ion Cannon strike, but in the process disturbed a Liquid Tiberium Bomb within the Temple. Its detonation destroyed all GDI presence in the Balkans and any surviving Nod forces, blanketing the Eastern Mediterranean under Tiberium and turning vast areas into Red Zones. The detonation was also the trigger for the Scrin invasion of Earth.