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A nationalistic, zealous army of warriors willing to lay down their lives for their godlike Emperor and his vision. The Empire of the Rising Sun runs a strictly-disciplined military that takes great pride in its futuristic weaponry and ruthless tactics.
- Red Alert 3 official website

The Empire of the Rising Sun is the Imperial regime of Japan, led by the Emperor and the Shogunate. Created as a result of Anatoly Cherdenko's erasure of Albert Einstein from the timeline, the Empire of the Rising Sun declared war on both the Allies and the Soviet Union during the Third World War, believing that it is its "divine destiny" to rule the world. Influenced by nationalism, militarism and imperialism, the Empire has adopted aggressive policies, viewing the Allies and Soviets nothing more than "western barbarians".


Previous incarnation

The flag of Japan.

Despite the removal of Adolf Hitler, the USS Arizona Memorial and Iwo Jima Memorial are present in the timeline of Red Alert and Red Alert 2.[1][2] The independence of Korea during the Third World War indicates that the Empire of Japan collapsed long before 1972 and gave independence to her colonies. Notably, a telephone with "Tokyo" written on it can be seen next to the one with "Moscow" written on it that Michael Dugan uses to call Alexander Romanov during the opening of Red Alert 2.[3] It is unknown whether the presence of that phone has any significance.

In the first iteration of the Third World War, Japan was colored blue on the map at the start of the war so it was either neutral or loosely affiliated with the Allies. During the first mission of the Guardians of the East campaign, South Korean forces fought the Soviets along the coast of Japan for naval supremacy of the Pacific.


Emperor Yoshiro played by George Takei

The Empire of Japan transformed into the Empire of the Rising Sun after 1927 following two significant temporal events: the erasure of Adolf Hitler by Albert Einstein in 1924,[4] and the erasure of Einstein by Anatoly Cherdenko in 1927.[5] By the time of the Third World War, the Empire extended to Oahu in the mid-Pacific.

Spurred by Emperor Yoshiro's vision of "divine destiny" and global hegemony, the Empire undertook a significant expansion of its armed forces prior to the war. The Allies and Soviets estimated the Empire's resources as greatly inferior to their own. The sophistication and scale of the build up, including notable developments in Wave-Force and nanotechnology, went largely unnoticed.

Rise of the Empire

RAM Logo Imperials.png The following is based on the Imperial campaign of Red Alert (iOS) and might contradict canon.

The Empire made its first moves in the Pacific, eliminating both the rival Moon Clan and the Allied presence in the Bonin Islands.[6][7] Following this the Soviet Union, interested in the Empire's psychic research, kidnaps one of the Empire's earliest psionic commandos, Izumi. In response, a skillful Imperial commander leads a team into the USSR, rescues Izumi, and destroys the Soviet psychic research facilities.[8] Enraged by the Soviets, Izumi slaughters the soldiers and inhabitants in Sochi.[9]

Shocked by the recent events, the Allies sent a massive fleet to the Pacific in order to pacify the fledging Empire. But, with Izumi and the new Psionic Decimator, the Imperial forces were able to eliminate the Allied fleet, cementing the Rising Sun's control in the far east.[10]

Third World War

Imperial strategy took advantage of circumstances generated by the war between the Allies and the Soviet Union. The concentration of Soviet forces in Western Europe was an opportunity not to be missed. The Imperial bid for world domination opened with an offensive on the relatively poorly defended eastern territories of the Soviet Union.

Emperor Yoshiro waited until the Allies expended themselves pushing the Soviets out of Western Europe before announcing the Empire's ambitions to the world. The deployment of floating fortresses into the North Sea and western Mediterranean to force European submission coincided with the announcement. The question then becomes: can the upstart Empire fulfill its destiny and triumph over two global superpowers?

The wait for the answer was not a long one.

The Allies and Soviets organized a truce and a combined European counter-offensive against the Empire. The North Sea floating fortress was destroyed when its power reactors were induced to overload by enemy sabotage action. With the immediate threat to Europe removed, the Allies began planning an attack on where the Empire of the Rising Sun calls home: Japan.

With the war developing apace the Supreme Shogunate held a meeting in Tokyo. Allied spies learned of this and an Allied/Soviet joint strike on Tokyo was organized to eliminate the Imperial leadership. While Soviet forces abandoned the offensive to prepare for a resumption of operations against the Allies, the Allied component was equal to the task. Allied forces, under the command of Lissette Hanley and an unnamed Allied Commander, successfully destroyed the Empire's military infrastructure, as well as its military headquarters, the Toyama High Command. With its ability to wage war effectively crippled, the Empire no longer posses a threat to the rest of the world, ending its campaign of conquest.

The Uprising

After the decisive defeat of the Empire at Tokyo Harbor and the death of Emperor Yoshiro, the Empire's citizens feared for the Emperor's only son, Crown Prince Tatsu. However, rather than fall prey to desperation or despair, Tatsu did something no one, not even the Allies, expected: He surrendered, and agreed to cooperate with the Allies to put an end to their war. The Imperial people perceived this surprising move as bold and cowardly in equal measure.

Imperial campaign

CNCRA3U logo.png Until a future game comes out and says otherwise, all Red Alert 3 - Uprising missions are treated as canon.

One of the remaining Imperial Commanders still loyal to Yoshiro's legacy, commanded by Emperor Tatsu, was assigned to relieve Kenji Tenzai of his defense post in a bid to fend off Soviet incursions, namely the one taking place at Sakhalin Island. However, the Commander's next assignment was of cultural and moral importance: left to their own devices, the Soviets can pretty much defile the Oki Island tomb of the late Emperor Yoshiro, resulting in a disgraceful blow to Imperial morale for generations to come, so the Commander saw to it to deny such an atrocious action from the Soviet invaders led by Moskvin, effectively sending the Soviet invasion falling to pieces.

The fall of Vladivostok was the finishing touch of Emperor Tatsu's show of independence from his Allied slave-drivers. In spite of facing both Allied and Soviet forces in one theater of combat, with Giles poised to quell Tatsu's uprising, the brilliant Imperial commander made sure none of them were a match for the crown jewel of Imperial military robotics: the Giga Fortress.

Vladivostok's destruction, in the end, proved a symbolic victory, for the Empire of the Rising Sun has risen from its ruins just as the Phoenix rises from its ashes. Now Tatsu and his Commander shall start together their trick to the Allied Occupational Forces on Japan, in order to restore the power they lost during the war.

Allied campaign

Despite the Empire's surrender, several Imperial commanders refused to obey Tatsu, and rebelled against the Allied occupational forces. Because of this, the Allied Commander from the previous war returned to duty, and was tasked with quelling these insurrections with assistance from Tatsu.

The Commander's first target was Shinzo Nagama, who retreated to his ancestral home in Shin Iga Province after the Emperor's death. He secretly gathered followers, and prepared to rise against Tatsu. However, the Allied Commander defeated his loyalist forces, and froze his mansion with cryo weapons. The aged Imperial warlord attempted to escape in a disguised Sudden Transport, but was still captured and transferred to Detention Camp Dakota.

With Shinzo's defeat, his forces swore allegiance to Tatsu. However, the uprising was not over. Even after Shinzo's capture, former Shogunate leader Kenji Tenzai was still marshalling his forces in Osaka. Kenji was prepared for the Allied Commander's arrival, and protected his manor with three modified Nanoswarm hives, capable of operating indefinitely, making it indestructible. However, the Commander's forces managed to disable or destroy all of the Nanoswarm hives.

With the help of reinforcements from Tatsu, the Commander destroyed Kenji's manor, forcing Kenji out of hiding. However, Kenji had one last card up his sleeve: a stolen Allied Technology inhibitor and a customized King Oni for his own use. The activation of the Tech Inhibitor disabled all structures and vehicles in the area (except his personal King Oni), and caused all aircraft to crash, including his own. However, the Allies sent in a squad of Cryo Legionnaire and Agent Tanya, who killed all of Kenji's loyal infantry, destroyed the Tech Inhibitor, and froze Kenji's King Oni. Soon, Kenji joined Shinzo in an Allied detention camp.

With Kenji's imprisonment, there is only one last rebelling Imperial Shogun left: Takara Sato. This renegade Imperial commander is planning a full-scale assault on the throne from Miyako. Once again, the Commander succeeded, forcing Takara's forces to retreat. However, Tatsu suddenly reveals that he has being using the Allies for his own purposes. He crowns himself Emperor Tatsu, and claimed that he will drive out the Allies using the surrendered forces of the warlords. For this battle, Tatsu deployed the devastating Giga Fortresses and a captured Allied Chronosphere (which was somehow able to Chronoshift structures) against the Commander. However, he was still defeated in the end, marking the end of the Empire's uprising.

Military doctrine

With enough time, any man may master the physical. With enough knowledge, any man may become wise. It is a true warrior who can master both.
- Emperor Yoshiro

The Imperial military is a unique blend of Japanese tradition and technology. The Empire maintains its well known discipline and loyalty through the philosophy of bushido and reverence for the ancient warriors known as Samurai. The Imperial order of battle includes high-tech, highly versatile transforming units, more traditional ones and a living weapon - namely a young female commando with psychic powers, Yuriko Omega. The Empire's manpower is naturally not as much as the one of the Soviets and the Allies. However to compensate for this, they developed advanced technologies and mechas, drones and massive robots to fight for them along with their warriors.

Despite believing in honor above all else, the Empire is not above relying on stealth and subterfuge. For example, advanced androids are used to gather intelligence from both the Allies and the Soviets, Shinobis infiltrate enemy bases in the field, and Sudden transports are utilized to ambush the enemy from behind the lines. More recently, female warriors have also been accepted into the ranks of the Imperial Army, despite initial controversies amongst the Emperor's more-conservative subjects.

One of the Empire's greatest technological innovations is the Nanocore, which embodies both the Empire's mastery over nanotechnology and its aggressive, expansionist ideals. It allows the Empire to extend its control far and wide, building structures in distant location from the Construction Yard.

Under Emperor Yoshiro, Imperial military campaigns usually involve attacking an enemy by surprise with overwhelming force and demoralising the enemy into submission. To this end, the Empire concentrated their military operations against symbolic targets as well as using the media to win hearts and minds. This approach did not always work. One of the Emperor's more outspoken (by Imperial standards) critic is Crown Prince Tatsu, who advocated a simpler approach to war - namely killing all who stand in their way.

After the defeat of the Empire, the doctrine of what's left of the Imperial military (which has apparently reorganized into a resistance movement known as the Imperial Final Defense Force) shifted from offense to defense and guerrilla tactics. The Steel Ronins, originally created as a punishment for Imperial soldiers who cracked under pressure or displayed extreme violence, were activated as a last resort weapon for the defense of the Imperial homeland. Archer maidens, women who were rejected by the Rocket Angel ranks, defended the borders of their country with guerrilla-style ambushes. Takara Sato, former chief of the Rocket Angels' First Batallion, was experienced in surprise assaults, and launched a series of successful attacks on the Allied occupation forces.

Technology Level

Though culturally they are a backward and superstitious people, technologically they are quite advanced.
- Premier Cherdenko, on the Empire

The Empire of the Rising Sun had an impressive tally of technological achievements. Its military forces combine cutting-edge nanotechnology with traditional Japanese aesthetics. With soldiers wielding both rifles and katanas, men resembling ancient Ashigaru equipped with plasma cannons, and even mysterious ninjas armed with nothing but swords and shurikens fighting alongside towering mechanical walkers and transformable vehicles.

  • Nanotechnology
The use of nanotechnology is extremely prevalent in the Empire's military, due to its versatility. The most obvious example being the Nanocores used to construct field bases. Various different nanomaterials are also used in Imperial war machines: the Tsunami tank is equipped with nano-deflective armor that can dampen ballistic impact, the Naginata cruiser's hull is made of durable nano-steel, and the Wave-Force Artillery uses carbon nanotube supercapacitors to contain the massive amount of energy it generates. On a larger scale, the Nanoswarm hive houses billions of nanomachines, which can temporarily form an impenetrable barrier at a designated location.
  • Robotics
The Empire has the technology to create android infiltrators that are nearly indistinguishable from humans. Several of these infiltrators infiltrated both the Allies and the Soviets, and obtained the blueprints for their Mobile Construction Vehicles, allowing the Empire to develop its own. The Emperor also has his own android body double, to protect him from assassination attempts. However, these androids have to be remotely controlled manually and would go berserk if the connection is severed.
In addition, the Empire employs many different types of pilot-assisted robots, from the towering King Oni to the nimble Mecha Tengu. Many of these robots are also transformable, making them extremely versatile on the battlefield. After the end of the war, Imperial scientists created the Giga Fortress - a massive dual-form robot controlled by a sophisticated artificial intelligence.
  • Kinetic-burst weapons
The primary anti-infantry weapon technology used by the Empire. Kinetic-burst weapons are energy weapons that fire superheated slugs instead of conventional bullets, which cause painful lacerations and burns in unarmored targets. No shell casings or physical projectiles are left behind, making residues from these weapons untraceable, and reducing overall weight-of-equipment. Kinetic-burst carbine is the primary weapon of Imperial warriors, the greatbows used by Archer Maidens, and larger caliber versions are used by vehicles and stationary defenses, such as the Mecha Tengu, Sky-Wing and the Defender VX turret.
  • Plasma weapons
The plasma-cutter cannon was a unique anti-armor weapon developed by the Empire, capable of melting foot-thick steel in seconds, making them extremely effective against armored vehicles and structures. These weapons are used by the Empire's Tankbuster divisions. In addition, the Tankbusters' sunburst headgears may fire plasma beams straight down to cut out a man-sized hole on any surface, allowing them to burrow underground in order to set up ambushes or avoid being crushed by enemy vehicles.
Supposedly inspired by the Empire's anthem, Wave-Force technology is able to generate a tremendous amount of power. In the case of the Empire's Wave-Force Artillery and the King Oni, uses a powerful generator to harmonize the waveforms of heavy matter particles. As each molecule is aligned, the matter begins to resonate, and soon this closed system takes on tremendous destructive potential. At the moment in which the system's energy can no longer be contained in the supercapacitors, all of it is channeled in a powerful long-range beam, which can tear through most known matter. Despite its destructive power, this beam is extremely focused, preventing unnecessary collateral damage.
This technology supposedly existed in research facilities for years, but engineers at Kanegawa Industries were the first to be able to create a version of the weapon that could effectively operate in the field. The energy weapon requires no bulky ammunition and very infrequent recharging due to a sophisticated energy recovery system. However, the delicate electronics require a nearby clean-room environment and regular maintenance.
The same technology is also used in stationary defenses, such as the Wave-Force tower and the Wave-Force Triguns of the Floating fortresses. Further more, localized wave-force fields can be used to fashion melee weapons, such as the wave-force glaive used by the Steel Ronin and the massive wave-force katanas used by the Shogun Executioner.
Psionics is possibly the least understood of the Empire's various technological marvels. What is known is that Yuriko Omega, the Empire's psychic commando, is capable of crushing even the most heavily armored tanks and wiping out large groups of infantry using only her mind. She was also able to project a Psionic Shield that reflects enemy projectiles and dominate the minds of weaker minded foes.
The only other known Imperial Psionic was Izumi, who was considered one of the Empire's most precious assets prior to Yuriko's deployment into the war. While the full extent of her powers are unknown, she apparently had similar powers to Yuriko.
Both of these Psionic commandos were the products of Imperial research into psionics conducted at Shiro Sanitarium before it was utterly destroyed by Yuriko. Reports indicate that a detachment of Archer maidens volunteered to provide extra security for the Shiro facility in exchange for psychic training. However, whether or not Shiro scientists have indeed found a way to train more psychics is unknown.
  • Cloning technology
Through the use of cloning technology, countless clones of Yuriko were created at the Shiro Sanitarium and possibly other secret facilities. These clones were not as powerful as the original, lacking many of her unique Psionic Talents. However, they were still extremely powerful on the battlefield. They serve as Psionic commandos under Imperial Commanders, and were also used to power the ultimate weapon of the Empire: the Psionic Decimator.

Important People

EotRS logo.png The following is based on the Imperial campaign of Red Alert 3 and might contradict canon.

Emperor Yoshiro

Do not struggle against what is inevitable!
- Emperor Yoshiro's Ultimatum

The Emperor of the Rising Sun. The longtime ruler of the Empire of the Rising Sun, he is cherished as a living god by his people and the military. Emperor Yoshiro is a traditionalist who strictly follows the code of bushido, the samurai way of the warrior. He fundamentally believes that the Rising Sun's destiny is to rule the entire world, he is Emperor by divine right and that his fate is preordained. He rarely shows emotion and often speaks in a seemingly wise tone.

While the Soviets and Allies were fighting each other, Yoshiro was building up a massive high-tech military force bent on world domination, and demands that both the Allies and Soviets submit to Imperial dominance. In case his Imperial Palace is destroyed, Yoshiro will jump in his own personal King Oni for a last resort.

In the Imperial Campaign he gave the Imperial Commander the honorable title of Supreme Shogun.

Suki Toyama

The opportunity is here to destroy the Russian barbarians once and for all!
- Suki before Crumble Kremlin Crumble Begins

An Intelligence Officer of the Imperial military and a childhood friend of Tatsu. She performs the same function as Lt. Eva does for the Allies, and like Eva, develops an attraction to the up and coming Commander. In the end of WWIII in the Imperial perspective, she's last seen in a bikini inviting the Commander, now Supreme Shogun, to join her a vacation in the tropics.

Toyoma High Command was named after her family, who have been serving the Emperor for generations.

Crown Prince Tatsu

I want their hearts and souls, commander. But I also want Krukov's head on a stick!
- Prince Tatsu on the preparations for the Battle of Odessa

Emperor Yoshiro's son and heir. He is a major figure in the Imperial armed forces and directs many of the missions against the Empire's enemies. He wants to lead Japan with a more modern outlook, while maintaining his father's traditional way of thinking.

In the Imperial perspective of the War, he is revealed to be responsible for certain Imperial technologies such as the Shogun Executioner and the Howard T. Ackerman android. He takes command after Yoshiro's resignation and orders the commander to swiftly defeat the Soviets and Allies, earning his father's respect. Tatsu is later able to cheer up his father with the prospect that the Empire is creating their own destiny.

As the Crown Prince he fielded his own naval fleet and will take command of it whenever the situation arises. For instance he commissioned his navy to destroy the Allied invaders at Tokyo Harbour but was soon sunk by the Allied navy, ensuring Allied naval supremacy during the battle.

Tatsu served as the puppet leader during the Allied occupation of Japan and was deeply resentful of this. Under the guise of cooperating with the Allies, he aided the Allied effort to quell the uprisings of the rebel Shogunate leaders before betraying the Allies and attempting to rid the Empire of the foreign barbarians.

Commando Yuriko Omega

They won't bother us anymore.
- Yuriko, ordered to destroy

See "Yuriko" Datafile for information.

Kenji Tenzai

With me at your side you'll sure have the advantage.
- Kenji

A Shogunate leader. Young, arrogant and full of life, this man is a nationalist and loyal servant of the Empire. He has great confidence and trust in the Emperor and his sacred will. He was the one that helped mastermind the Imperial Invasion of Russia, and it's his goal to train the next generation of Commanders to carry out the Emperor's will. Kenji is at his best on the battlefield, and his knowledge of Imperial technology is unmatched. Thus, he is known for using vehicles over infantry in battle.

Tenzai Robotics, as reported by Allied forces in their drive for Tokyo, was named after this nationalistic and hyperactive shogun.

Shinzo Nagama

I die with honor you will not!
- Shinzo

A calculating shogun who is referred to as the "Emperor's Shadow". He assists the Imperial Shogun Commander in a battle against General Krukov and Allied Commander Hanley. His ambitions for the Empire are great and sees the Imperial Commander as his protégé as the Imperial campaign ends.

Nagama Dojos, as reported by Allied forces during the Tokyo siege, was named after the Emperor's Shadow and his calculating personality.

Naomi Shirada

I don't think your are big enough for this fight! You better turn around while you still can!
- Naomi

Born on a Shogun Battleship, Naomi is a shogun with a cold soul and ruthless battle strategies to match it. Bearing strong hatreds for the Soviet "barbarians", she will stop at nothing to bring glory and honor to the Empire.

Shirada Docks and the Shogun Battleship's 6 "Shirada" main guns were named after her as a reflection of her naval superiority tactics.

Imperial Commander

In the Imperial Campaign, he managed to aid the Empire in defeating both the Allies and the Soviets, almost single-handedly turned the tide of the war. After the Empire's victory, he became the Imperial Supreme Shogun.

Areas of Interest

  • Tanabe: According to some sources, Yuriko Omega, whose real name was "Yuriko Matsui", was born in this city and is where her Psionic powers began to show in her early days. Due to her powers, she was shunned by her peers. She was eventually discovered by Imperial scientists and was sent to the Shiro Sanitarium. At the Sanitarium, she was subjected to a brutal and dehumanizing training regime, turning her into the cold-blooded psychic supersoldier she is today.

List of Zaibatsu and Military Contractors

Here are a list of Companies directly responsible for constructing the Empire's arsenal:

Fate outside of the Red Alert universe

Tiberium universe

As one of the G7 nations, Japan was a founding member of the Global Defense Initiative. Despite this, Tokyo was identified as a Nod base of operations prior to the First Tiberium War.[11]

Sakura Obata hailed from Japan and was a former member of the Yakuza.[12]

Following the Firestorm Conflict, Japan was classified as Blue Zone B-6. In the initial stage of the Third Tiberium War, it was attacked by Nod forces as part of a coordinated attack on every Blue Zone in the world. Its fate following the Nod attack as well as the subsequent Scrin invasion is unknown.

Behind the scenes

  • The third faction in Red Alert 3 was originally the Swiss Army in a very early draft.[13]
  • In the Japanese version of Command & Conquer: Red Alert (iOS), the Empire of the Rising Sun's Japanese name is given as "暁の帝国" (lit. "Empire of Dawn").


  • The Empire of the Rising Sun is, obviously, based on Japanese popular culture and historical periods. The Japanese units and buildings are largely inspired by anime, manga, feudal Japan and the Pacific War.
  • The Empire's futuristic technological level alludes to Japanese post-war economic boom and the numerous high-tech products manufactured by the advanced Japanese industry.
  • The Empire's defense contractors and armament manufacturers are influenced by the concept of zaibatsu, a Japanese term referring to business conglomerates with strong political, economical and military connections in the Imperial Japan.
  • Emperor Yoshiro is worshipped by Japanese people as a divine being (arahitogami), mirroring a primeval Japanese mythical tale of the Emperors of Japan being descendants of the sun goddess Amaterasu.
  • Uniquely in Red Alert 3, the Empire of the Rising Sun has no Airfield/Airbase and instead utilizes two aircraft that are build in a Mecha bay and Imperial docks respectively: One is for Air Superiority/Anti-Infantry (Mecha Tengu) and is built in the Mecha Bay; while the Imperial Docks can build the Attack plane/Anti-Air Submarine (Sea-Wing). This could be a reference to the fact that Imperial Japan in real life never had an established Air Force and instead had two separate Air Forces; one for the Army and one for the Navy.
  • The Empire's militaristic ideology and nationalist policies, like the belief of the "divine destiny" to rule all mankind, are inspired by the nationalistic slogan Hakkō ichiu, which was interpreted that the Japanese were a "divine" race destined to unite the world and adopt expansionist policies to establish dominion over the continental Asia. In the 1930s, the slogan culminated in the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, a Japanese concept to establish a bloc of Asian nations led by the Empire of Japan, which is alluded in the game by the Empire's attempts to establish a global hegemony.
  • The Japanese actually made claim on Hawaii in 1880-1890s, considering the Kingdom of Hawaii as their protectorate. The Japanese Empire protested against the US-inspired Wilcox rebellion in 1895 (which led to eventual annexation of Hawaii by the United States) and send warships to support their position, but eventually backed off, unwilling to start a war with USA in 1897. The presence of Japanese-controlled Hawaii in Empire of the Rising Sun may indicate that changes in timeline might actually went into the 19th century.


  1. Westwood Pacific, Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2. Allied mission 7: "Operation: Deep Sea".
  2. Westwood Pacific, Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2. Soviet mission 1: "Operation: Red Dawn".
  3. Westwood Studios, Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2. Cinematic: "Intro Movie", a00_f00e.bik.
  4. Westwood Pacific, Command & Conquer: Red Alert. Cinematic: "Introduction", prolog.vqa.
  5. Electronic Arts Los Angeles, Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3. Cinematic: "Red Alert 3 Prologue".
  6. Electronic Arts Mobile Romania, Command & Conquer: Red Alert (iOS). Imperial mission 1: "Blood of Brothers".
  7. Electronic Arts Mobile Romania, Command & Conquer: Red Alert (iOS). Imperial mission 2: "Morning Sun".
  8. Electronic Arts Mobile Romania, Command & Conquer: Red Alert (iOS). Imperial mission 3: "Mind Struggle".
  9. Electronic Arts Mobile Romania, Command & Conquer: Red Alert (iOS). Imperial mission 4: "Child of Amaterasu".
  10. Electronic Arts Mobile Romania, Command & Conquer: Red Alert (iOS). Imperial mission 5: "Sunrise".
  11. Finger, Penina, Adam Isgreen, and Erik Yeo. Command & Conquer: Instruction Manual. Las Vegas, Nevada: Westwood Studios, 1997.
  12. Westwood Studios, Command & Conquer: Renegade official site: With Friends Like These...: Sakura's Story (archived). Mirror: Renegade Files.
  13. Black, G. [@TheGregBlack]. (18 January 2019). Stumbled across this super early Red Alert 3 design doc, back when the Empire of the Rising Sun faction was a literal Swiss Army faction. [Tweet]. Twitter.
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